Nepal ([ˈneːpal], auch [ neˈpaːl], Nepali नेपाल Nepāl) (Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel anhören) ist ein Binnenstaat in Südasien. Er grenzt im Norden an die Volksrepublik China und im Osten, Süden und Westen an Indien. Die Hauptstadt Kathmandu ist der Sitz der Südasiatischen Vereinigung für. In Nepals Hauptstadt Kathmandu liegen die durchschnittlichen Tagestemperaturen im Januar bei 10°C, im Juli bei 24°C. Bevölkerung in Nepal. Nepal ist durch. Die Hauptstadt Kathmandu. Kathmandu ist die quirlige Hauptstadt Nepals, welche in eine wunderschöne Berglandschaft eingebettet ist. Wenn Sie die Stadt.
Nepal - Reisetipps & InformationenDie Hauptstadt Kathmandu. Kathmandu ist die quirlige Hauptstadt Nepals, welche in eine wunderschöne Berglandschaft eingebettet ist. Wenn Sie die Stadt. Kathmandu. Nepals Hauptstadt musst Du auf jeden Fall gesehen haben! Die Stadt hat eine einzigartige Atmosphäre und unterscheidet sich maßgeblich. Kathmandu, Stadt der Götter; Chitwan National Park; Pokhara am Lake Phewa; Thimphu, Bhutans Hauptstadt; Taktshang, das Tigernest. Karte öffnen.
Nepal Hauptstadt Blick über Kathmandu VideoKleine Wölfe - Straßenkinder von Kathmandu Nepal Kathmandu ist die. Nepal ([ˈneːpal], auch [ neˈpaːl], Nepali नेपाल Nepāl) (Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel anhören) ist ein Binnenstaat in Südasien. Er grenzt im Norden an die Volksrepublik China und im Osten, Süden und Westen an Indien. Die Hauptstadt Kathmandu ist der Sitz der Südasiatischen Vereinigung für. Die Stadt mit knapp 1 Million Einwohnern liegt auf einer Höhe von Metern, umgeben von den Gipfeln des Himalaya-Massivs am Eingang des. Kathmandu. Nepals Hauptstadt musst Du auf jeden Fall gesehen haben! Die Stadt hat eine einzigartige Atmosphäre und unterscheidet sich maßgeblich. August amerikanisches Englisch. Zum Hauptinhalt springen. Ende März statt. Ähnliche Reisen.
With this new area, the population density which was 85 in remained 85 in ; it is likely to jump to in and in The major languages are Nepali and Nepal Bhasa , while English is understood by many, particularly in the service industry.
According to data from , the major religions in Kathmandu city are Hinduism The linguistic profile of Kathmandu underwent drastic changes during the Shah dynasty's rule because of its strong bias towards the Hindu culture.
Sanskrit language therefore was preferred and people were encouraged to learn it even by attending Sanskrit learning centres in Terai.
Sanskrit schools were specially set up in Kathmandu and in the Terai region to inculcate traditional Hindu culture and practices originated from Nepal.
The ancient trade route between India and Tibet that passed through Kathmandu enabled a fusion of artistic and architectural traditions from other cultures to be amalgamated with local art and architecture.
The architectural treasure of the Kathmandu valley has been categorized under the well-known seven groups of heritage monuments and buildings.
The seven monuments zones cover an area of hectares acres , with the buffer zone extending to 2, hectares 5, acres.
The Seven Monument Zones inscribed originally in and with a minor modification in are the Durbar squares of Hanuman Dhoka , Patan and Bhaktapur , the Hindu temples of Pashupatinath and Changunarayan , the Buddhist stupas of Swayambhunath and Boudhanath.
The literal meaning of Durbar Square is a "place of palaces. The Durbar Square of Kathmandu is in the old city and has heritage buildings representing four kingdoms Kantipur, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Kirtipur ; the earliest being the Licchavi dynasty.
The complex has 50 temples and is distributed in two quadrangles of the Durbar Square. The squares were severely damaged in the April earthquake.
Hanuman Dhoka is a complex of structures with the royal palace of the Malla kings and of the Shah dynasty. It is spread over five acres.
The eastern wing, with ten courtyards, is the oldest part, dating to the midth century. It was expanded by King Pratap Malla in the 17th century with many temples.
The royal family lived in this palace until when they moved to Narayanhiti Palace. The stone inscription outside is in fifteen languages.
Kumari Ghar is a palace in the centre of the Kathmandu city, next to the Durbar square where a royal Kumari selected from several Kumaris resides.
Kumari, or Kumari Devi, is the tradition of worshipping young pre-pubescent girls as manifestations of the divine female energy or devi in South Asian countries.
In Nepal the selection process is very rigorous. Previously, during the time of monarchy, the queen and the priests used to appoint the proposed Kumari with delicate process of astrological examination and physical examination of 32 'gunas'.
The Kumari is believed to be a bodily incarnation of the goddess Taleju the Nepali name for Durga until she menstruates, after which it is believed that the goddess vacates her body.
Serious illness or a major loss of blood from an injury are also causes for her to revert to common status. The current Kumari, Trishna Shakya, age three at the time of appointment, was installed in September succeeding Matina Shakya who was the first Kumari of Kathmandu after the end of monarchy.
Kasthamandap is a three-storeyed temple enshrining an image of Gorakhnath. It was built in the 16th century in pagoda style.
The name of Kathmandu is a derivative of the word Kasthamandap. It was built under the reign of King Laxmi Narsingha Malla. Kasthamandap stands at the intersection of two ancient trade routes linking India and Tibet at Maru square.
It was originally built as a rest house for travellers. Located on the banks of the Bagmati river , the Pashupatinath Temple is the oldest Hindu temple in Kathmandu.
However, a significant part of the temple was destroyed by Mughal invaders in the 14th century and little or nothing remains of the original 5th-century temple exterior.
The temple as it stands today was built in the 19th century, although the image of the bull and the black four-headed image of Pashupati are at least years old.
Believers in Pashupatinath mainly Hindus are allowed to enter the temple premises, but non-Hindu visitors are allowed to view the temple only from the across the Bagmati River.
This procedure is followed in other temples around India, which were sanctified by Adi Shankaracharya. The temple is built in the pagoda style of architecture, with cubic constructions and carved wooden rafters tundal on which they rest, and two-level roofs made of copper and gold.
It is a very popular tourist site. The base of the stupa has small depictions of the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha.
It is surrounded with a brick wall with niches, each with four or five prayer wheels engraved with the mantra, om mani padme hum.
The influx of many Tibetan refugees from China has seen the construction of over 50 Tibetan gompas monasteries around Boudhanath.
This is among the oldest religious sites in Nepal. Although the site is considered Buddhist, it is revered by both Buddhists and Hindus. The stupa consists of a dome at the base; above the dome, there is a cubic structure with the eyes of Buddha looking in all four directions.
Behind and above the torana there are thirteen tiers. Above all the tiers, there is a small space above which lies a gajur.
It was built by king Pratap Malla in AD for his beloved queen after she lost her son and could not recover from her loss.
Balgopaleshwor Temple stands still inside the temple above the pond. Rani Pokhari is opened once a year during the final day of Tihar i. Bhai Tika and Chhath festival.
The world's largest Chhath takes place every year in Ranipokhari. The pond is one of Kathmandu's most famous landmarks and is known for its religious and aesthetic significance.
Kathmandu valley is described as "an enormous treasure house of art and sculptures", which are made of wood, stone, metal, and terracotta , and found in profusion in temples, shrines, stupas, gompas, chaityasm and palaces.
The art objects are also seen in street corners, lanes, private courtyards and in open ground. Most art is in the form of icons of gods and goddesses.
Kathmandu valley has had this art treasure for a very long time, but received worldwide recognition only after the country opened to the outside world in The religious art of Nepal and Kathmandu in particular consists of an iconic symbolism of the Mother Goddesses such as: Bhavani, Durga, Gaja-Lakshmi, Hariti-Sitala, Mahsishamardini, Saptamatrika seven mother goddesses , and Sri-Lakshmi wealth-goddess.
A broad typology has been ascribed to the decorative designs and carvings created by the people of Nepal.
These artists have maintained a blend of Hinduism and Buddhism. The typology, based on the type of material used are: stone art, metal art, wood art, terracotta art, and painting.
Kathmandu is home to a number of museums and art galleries, including the National Museum of Nepal and the Natural History Museum of Nepal.
Nepal's art and architecture is an amalgamation of two ancient religions, Hinduism and Buddhism. This amalgamation is also reflected in the planning and exhibitions in museums and art galleries throughout Kathmandu and its sister cities of Patan and Bhaktapur.
The museums display unique artefacts and paintings from the 5th century CE to the present day, including archeological exportation.
Museums and art galleries in Kathmandu include: . The National Museum is in the western part of Kathmandu, near the Swayambhunath stupa in a historical building constructed in the early 19th century by General Bhimsen Thapa.
It is the most important museum in the country, housing an extensive collection of weapons, art and antiquities of historic and cultural importance.
The museum was established in as a collection house of war trophies and weapons, and the initial name of this museum was Chhauni Silkhana , meaning "the stone house of arms and ammunition".
Given its focus, the museum contains many weapons, including locally made firearms used in wars, leather cannons from the 18th—19th century, and medieval and modern works in wood , bronze , stone and paintings.
The Natural History Museum is in the southern foothills of Swayambhunath hill and has a sizeable collection of different species of animals, butterflies , and plants.
The museum is noted for its display of species, from prehistoric shells to stuffed animals. The Tribhuvan Museum contains artifacts related to King Tribhuvan — It has a variety of pieces including his personal belongings, letters, and papers, memorabilia related to events he was involved in and a rare collection of photos and paintings of Royal family members.
The Mahendra Museum is dedicated to the King Mahendra — Like the Tribhuvan Museum, it includes his personal belongings such as decorations, stamps, coins and personal notes and manuscripts, but it also has structural reconstructions of his cabinet room and office chamber.
The Hanumandhoka Palace, a lavish medieval palace complex in the Durbar, contains three separate museums of historic importance. These museums include the Birendra museum, which contains items related to the second-last monarch, King Birendra.
The enclosed compound of the Narayanhiti Palace Museum is in the north-central part of Kathmandu. The current palace building was built in in front of the old palace, built in , in the form of a contemporary pagoda.
It was built on the occasion of the marriage of the then crown prince and heir apparent to the throne, Birendra.
The southern gate of the palace is at the crossing of Prithvipath and Durbar Marg roads. The palace area covers 30 hectares 74 acres and is fully secured with gates on all sides.
After the fall of the monarchy, it has been converted into a museum. The Taragaon Museum presents the modern history of the Kathmandu valley.
The actual structure of the museum showcases restoration and rehabilitation efforts to preserve the built heritage of Kathmandu. It was designed by Carl Pruscha master-planner of the Kathmandu Valley  in and constructed in The design uses local brick along with modern architectural design elements, as well as the use of circle, triangles and squares.
Kathmandu is a centre for art in Nepal, displaying the work of contemporary artists in the country and also collections of historical artists.
Patan in particular is an ancient city noted for its fine arts and crafts. Art in Kathmandu is vibrant, demonstrating a fusion of traditionalism and modern art, derived from a great number of national, Asian, and global influences.
Nepali art is commonly divided into two areas: the idealistic traditional painting known as Paubhas in Nepal and perhaps more commonly known as Thangkas in Tibet, closely linked to the country's religious history and on the other hand the contemporary western-style painting, including nature-based compositions or abstract artwork based on Tantric elements and social themes of which painters in Nepal are well noted for.
Kathmandu houses many notable art galleries. The Srijana Contemporary Art Gallery, inside the Bhrikutimandap Exhibition grounds, hosts the work of contemporary painters and sculptors, and regularly organizes exhibitions.
It also runs morning and evening classes in the schools of art. Also of note is the Moti Azima Gallery, in a three-storied building in Bhimsenthan which contains an impressive collection of traditional utensils and handmade dolls and items typical of a medieval Newar house, giving an important insight into Nepali history.
The J Art Gallery near the former royal palace in Durbarmarg displays the artwork of eminent, established Nepali painters.
The Nepal Art Council Gallery, in the Babar Mahal , on the way to Tribhuvan International Airport contains artwork of both national and international artists and extensive halls regularly used for art exhibitions.
The National Library of Nepal is located in Patan. It is the largest library in the country with more than 70, books in English , Nepali , Sanskrit , Hindi , and Nepal Bhasa.
The library is in possession of rare scholarly books in Sanskrit and English dating from the 17th century AD. Kathmandu also contains the Kaiser Library, in the Kaiser Mahal on the ground floor of the Ministry of Education building.
This collection of around 45, books is derived from a personal collection of Kaiser Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana. It covers a wide range of subjects including history, law, art, religion, and philosophy, as well as a Sanskrit manual of Tantra , which is believed to be over 1, years old.
The Asa Archives are also noteworthy. They specialize in medieval history and religious traditions of the Kathmandu valley. The archives, in Kulambhulu, have a collection of some 6, loose-leaf handwritten books and 1, palm-leaf manuscripts mostly in Sanskrit or Nepal Bhasa and a manuscript dated to Kathmandu is home to Nepali cinema and theatres.
The M. Art Theater is based in the city. Kathmandu has a number of cinemas old single screen establishments and some new multiplexes showing Nepali, Bollywood and Hollywood films.
Kathmandu is the center of music and dance in Nepal, and these art forms are integral to understanding the city. Musical performances are organized in cultural venues.
Music is a part of the traditional aspect of Kathmandu. Gunla is the traditional music festival according to Nepal Sambat. Newar music originated in Kathmandu.
Furthermore, music from all over Nepal can be found in Kathmandu. A number of hippies visited Kathmandu during the s and introduced rock and roll , rock , and jazz to the city.
Kathmandu is noted internationally for its jazz festival, popularly known as Jazzmandu. It is the only jazz festival in the Himalayan region and was established in March The festival attracts musicians from countries worldwide, such as Australia , Denmark , United States , Benin , and India.
The staple food of most people in Kathmandu is dal bhat. This consists of rice and lentil soup, generally served with vegetable curries, achar and sometimes Chutney.
Momo , a type of Nepali version of Tibetan dumpling, has become prominent in Nepal with many street vendors and restaurants selling it.
It is one of the most popular fast foods in Kathmandu. Various Nepali variants of momo including buff i. Most of the cuisines found in Kathmandu are non-vegetarian.
However, the practice of vegetarianism is not uncommon, and vegetarian cuisines can be found throughout the city. Consumption of beef is very uncommon and considered taboo in many places.
Buff meat of water buffalo is very common. There is a strong tradition of buff consumption in Kathmandu, especially among Newars , which is not found in other parts of Nepal.
Consumption of pork was considered taboo until a few decades ago. Due to the intermixing with Kirat cuisine from eastern Nepal, pork has found a place in Kathmandu dishes.
A fringe population of devout Hindus and Muslims consider it taboo. The Muslims forbid eating buff as from Quran while Hindus eat all varieties except beef as they consider cow to be a goddess and symbol of purity.
Kathmandu had only one western-style restaurant in Many other restaurants have opened to accommodate locals, expatriates, and tourists.
The growth of tourism in Kathmandu has led to culinary creativity and the development of hybrid foods to accommodate for tourists such as American chop suey , which is a sweet-and-sour sauce with crispy noodles with a fried egg commonly added on top and other westernized adaptations of traditional cuisine.
International chain restaurants are rare, but some outlets of Pizza Hut and KFC have recently opened there. Jahrhundert bis Mitte des Jahrhunderts waren alle drei eigenständige Stadtstaaten.
Die prächtigen Tempel mit ihren dreistöckigen Dächern stammen aus der Mitte des Jahrhunderts, einer kulturellen Blütezeit. Im Die Einflüsse reichten aus dem Nachbarland Indien hierher.
Heute machen solche alten Viertel nicht einmal ein Fünftel der gesamten Fläche Kathmandus aus. Da die Wirtschaft sich in den letzten Jahren gut entwickelt hat, wurde immer höher und aufwendiger gebaut.
In the late 14th century, Jayasthiti Malla introduced widespread socio-economic reforms, principal of which was the caste system.
By dividing the indigenous non-Aryan Buddhist population into castes modelled after the four Varna system of Hinduism, he provided an influential model for the Sanskritization and Hinduization of the indigenous non-Hindu tribal populations in all principalities throughout Nepal.
By the middle of the 15th century, Kathmandu had become a powerful empire which, according to Kirkpatrick , extended from Digarchi or Sigatse in Tibet to Tirhut and Gaya in India.
The competition for prestige among these brotherly kingdoms saw the flourishing of art and architecture in central Nepal, and the building of famous Kathmandu , Patan and Bhaktapur Durbar Squares ; their division and mistrust led to their fall in the late 18th century, and ultimately, unification of Nepal into a modern state.
Apart from one destructive sacking of Kathmandu in the early 13th century, Nepal remain largely untouched by the Muslim invasion of India that began in the 11th century.
However, the Mughal period saw an influx of high-caste Hindus from India into Nepal. They soon intermingled with the Khas people and by the 16th century, there were about 50 Rajput-ruled principalities in Nepal, including the 22 baisi states and, to their east in west-central Nepal, 24 Chaubisi states.
There emerged a view that Nepal remained the true bastion of unadulterated Hinduism at a time when Indian culture had been influenced by centuries of Mughal, followed by British rule.
Gorkha , one of the Baisi states, emerged as an influential and ambitious kingdom with a reputation for justice, after it codified the first Hinduism-based laws in the Nepalese hills.
In the midth century, Prithvi Narayan Shah , a Gorkha king, set out to put together what would become present-day Nepal. He embarked on his mission by securing the neutrality of the bordering mountain kingdoms.
After several bloody battles and sieges, notably the Battle of Kirtipur , he managed to conquer the Kathmandu Valley in The Gorkha control reached its height when the North Indian territories of the Kumaon and Garhwal Kingdoms in the west to Sikkim in the east came under Nepalese control.
A dispute with Tibet over the control of mountain passes and inner Tingri valleys of Tibet forced the Qing Emperor of China to start the Sino-Nepali War compelling the Nepali to retreat to their own borders in the north.
At first, the British underestimated the Nepali and were soundly defeated until committing more military resources than they had anticipated needing.
Thus began the reputation of Gurkhas as fierce and ruthless soldiers. The war ended in the Sugauli Treaty , under which Nepal ceded recently captured lands.
Factionalism inside the royal family led to a period of instability. In , a plot was discovered revealing that the reigning queen had planned to overthrow Jung Bahadur Kunwar, a fast-rising military leader.
This led to the Kot massacre ; armed clashes between military personnel and administrators loyal to the queen led to the execution of several hundred princes and chieftains around the country.
The king was made a titular figure, and the post of Prime Minister was made powerful and hereditary. The Ranas were staunchly pro-British and assisted them during the Indian Rebellion of and later in both World Wars.
In some parts of the western Terai region were gifted to Nepal by the British as a friendly gesture because of her military help to sustain British control in India during the rebellion known as Naya Muluk , new country.
In , the United Kingdom and Nepal formally signed an agreement of friendship that superseded the Sugauli Treaty of The Hindu practice of Sati , in which a widow sacrificed herself in the funeral pyre of her husband, was banned in , and slavery was officially abolished in In the late s, newly emerging pro-democracy movements and political parties in Nepal were critical of the Rana autocracy.
Following the success of Indian Independence Movement which Nepalese activists had taken part in, with India's support and cooperation of King Tribhuvan, Nepali Congress was successful in toppling the Rana regime, establishing a parliamentary democracy.
After a decade of power wrangling between the king and the government, King Mahendra ruled — scrapped the democratic experiment in , and a "partyless" Panchayat system was created to govern Nepal.
The political parties were banned and politicians imprisoned or exiled. The Panchayat rule modernised the country, introducing reforms and developing infrastructure, but curtailed liberties and imposed heavy censorship.
In , the People's Movement forced King Birendra ruled — to accept constitutional reforms and to establish a multiparty democracy.
In , the Maoist Party started a violent bid to replace the royal parliamentary system with a people's republic.
The Maoist Party joined mainstream politics following the success of the peaceful democratic revolution of ;  Nepal became a secular state ,  and on 28 May , it was declared a republic,  ending its time-honoured status as the world's only Hindu Kingdom.
After a decade of instability and internal strife which saw two constituent assembly elections, the new constitution was promulgated on 20 September , making Nepal a federal democratic republic divided into seven provinces.
In the western region, rivers which were too strong to be hampered, cut some of the world's deepest gorges. Nepal is divided into three principal physiographic belts known as Himal - Pahad - Terai.
Pahad is the mountain region that does not generally contain snow. The southern lowland plains or Terai bordering India are part of the northern rim of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Terai is the lowland region containing some hill ranges. The plains were formed and are fed by three major Himalayan rivers: the Koshi , the Narayani , and the Karnali as well as smaller rivers rising below the permanent snowline.
This region has subtropical to tropical climate. Erosion of the Himalayas is a very important source of sediment, which flows to the Indian Ocean.
Severe flooding and landslides cause deaths and disease, destroy farmlands and cripple the transport infrastructure of the country, during the monsoon season each year.
Nepal has five climatic zones, broadly corresponding to the altitudes. Nepal experiences five seasons: summer, monsoon , autumn, winter and spring.
The Himalayas block cold winds from Central Asia in the winter and form the northern limits of the monsoon wind patterns. Nepal contains a disproportionately large diversity of plants and animals, relative to its size.
Among the notable trees, are the astringent Azadirachta indica , or neem , which is widely used in traditional herbal medicine ,  and the luxuriant Ficus religiosa , or peepal ,  which is displayed on the ancient seals of Mohenjo-daro ,  and under which Gautam Buddha is recorded in the Pali canon to have sought enlightenment.
Most of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of the lower himalayan region is descended from the tethyan tertiary flora. Nepal contains IUCN -designated threatened species , 88 of them animal species, 18 plant species and one species of "fungi or protist" group.
In response, the system of national parks and protected areas , first established in with the enactment of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act ,  was substantially expanded.
Vulture restaurants  coupled with a ban on veterinary usage of diclofenac has seen a rise in the number of white-rumped vultures.
Nepal is a parliamentary republic with a multi-party system. In the s, a vibrant underground political movement rose in the capital, birthing Nepal Praja Parishad in ,  which was dissolved seven years later, following the execution of the four great martyrs.
Around the same time, Nepalis involved in the Indian Independence Movement started organizing into political parties, leading to the birth of Nepali Congress and Communist Party of Nepal.
After the joint civil resistance launched by the United Left Front and Nepali Congress overthrew the Panchayat in ,   the Front became CPN UML , adopted multi-party democracy, and in the brief period it was in government, introduced welfare programs that remain popular.
The transition period between and saw sustained protests from the newly formed ethnocentric nationalist movements, principal among them the Madhes Movement.
Nepal is governed according to the Constitution of Nepal. It defines Nepal as having multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious, multi-cultural characteristics with common aspirations of people living in diverse geographical regions, and being committed to and united by a bond of allegiance to the national independence, territorial integrity, national interest, and prosperity of Nepal.
The Government of Nepal has three branches: . Nepal is a federal republic comprising 7 provinces. Each province is composed of 8 to 14 districts.
The districts, in turn, comprise local units known as urban and rural municipalities. There are 6, wards in total.
The local governments enjoy executive and legislative as well as limited judicial powers in their local jurisdiction. The provinces have unicameral parliamentary Westminster system of governance.
The district coordination committee, a committee composed of all elected officials from the local governments in the district, has a very limited role.
The Constitution of Nepal is the supreme law of the land, and any other laws contradicting it are automatically invalid to the extent of the contradiction.
Nepali laws are considered generally more progressive compared to other developing countries, and in some instances, many developed ones.
Death penalty has been abolished. It recognises marital rape and supports abortion rights; however, owing to a rise in sex-selective abortion, constraints have been introduced.
Some legal provisions, guided by socio-economic, cultural and religious sensibilities, remain discriminatory. There is gender-based discrimination against foreign nationals married to Nepali citizens.
Many laws remain unenforced in practice. Nepal Police is the primary law enforcement agency. It is an independent organization under the command of the Inspector General , who is appointed by and reports to the Ministry of Home Affairs.
In addition to maintaining law and order, it is responsible for management of road traffic, which is undertaken by Nepal Traffic Police.
Nepal Armed Police Force , a separate paramilitary police organization, works in cooperation with Nepal police in routine security matters; it is intended for crowd control, counter-insurgency and anti-terrorism actions, and other internal matters where use of force may be necessary.
The Crime Investigation Department of Nepal Police specializes in criminal investigation and forensic analysis. Nepal depends on diplomacy for national defence.
It maintains a policy of neutrality between its neighbours, has amicable relations with other countries in the region, and has a policy of non-alignment at the global stage.
It has bilateral diplomatic relations with countries and the EU,  has embassies in 30 countries  and six consulates,  while 25 countries maintain embassies in Nepal, and more than 80 others maintain non-residential diplomatic missions.
Nepal pursues a policy of "balanced relations" with the two giant immediate neighbours, India and China;   the Treaty of Peace and Friendship with India provides for a much closer relationship.
India is Nepal's largest trading partner, which it depends upon for all of its oil and gas, and a number of essential goods. Nepalis can own property in India, while Indians are free to live and work in Nepal.
Nepal maintains neutrality in conflicts between China and India. It remains firmly committed to the One China Policy , and is known to curb anti-China activities from the Tibetan refugees in Nepal.
The President is the supreme commander of the Nepalese Army ; its routine management is handled by the Ministry of Defence.
The Major imports include various finished and semi-finished goods, raw materials, machinery and equipment, chemical fertilizers, electrical and electronic devices, petroleum products, gold, and readymade garments.
Under the current trend, Nepal is expected to eradicate poverty within 20 years. The Nepali rupee has been tied to the Indian rupee at an exchange rate of 1.
European Union EU Besides having landlocked, rugged geography, few tangible natural resources and poor infrastructure, the ineffective post government and the long-running civil war are also factors in stunting the country's economic growth and development.
Tourism is one of the largest and fastest-growing industries in Nepal, employing more than a million people and contributing 7. Most of Nepal's mountaineering earning comes from Mount Everest, which is more accessible from the Nepalese side.
Nepal, officially opened to westerners in , became a popular destination at the end of the hippie trail , during the s and s.
The industry, disrupted by the civil war in the s, has since recovered but faces challenges to growth, owing to a lack of proper facilities for high-end tourism termed the "infrastructure bottleneck", the flag carrier in shambles, and a handful of destinations properly developed and marketed.
The home-stay tourism, in which cultural and eco-tourists stay as paying guests in the homes of indigenous people, has seen some success.
The rate of unemployment and underemployment exceeds half of the working-age population,  driving millions to seek employment abroad, mainly in India, the Gulf, and East Asia.
Mostly unskilled, uneducated, and indebted to loan sharks, these workers are swindled by the manpower companies and sent to exploitative employers or war-ridden countries under fraudulent contracts.
Most do not get paid minimum wage,  and many are forced to forfeit all or part of the wages. Estimates put Nepal's economically feasible hydro-power potential at approximately 42, MW.
As most of it is generated from run-of-river ROR plants, the actual power produced is much lower in the dry winter months when peak demand can reach as high as 1, MW, and Nepal needs to import as much as MW from India to meet the demands.
Nepal remains isolated from the world's major land, air and sea transport routes, although, within the country, aviation is in a better state, with 47 airports, 11 of them with paved runways;  flights are frequent and support a sizeable traffic.
The hilly and mountainous terrain in the northern two-thirds of the country has made the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive.
The only practical seaport of entry for goods bound for Kathmandu is Kolkata in India. The national carrier, Nepal Airlines , is in poor shape due to mismanagement and corruption, and has been blacklisted by the EU.
As of [update] , the state operates three television stations as well as national and regional radio stations. There are private TV channels and FM radio stations licensed for operation, at least of them, community radio stations.
The citizens of Nepal are known as Nepali or Nepalese. Among the earliest inhabitants were the Kirat of the eastern region, Newars of the Kathmandu Valley , aboriginal Tharus of the Terai plains and the Khas Pahari people of the far-western hills.
Despite the migration of a significant section of the population to the Terai in recent years, the majority of Nepalese still live in the central highlands, and the northern mountains are sparsely populated.
Nepal is a multicultural and multiethnic country, home to distinct ethnic groups, speaking different mother tongues and following a number of indigenous and folk religions in addition to Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity.
From to , the average family size declined from 5. The census also noted some 1. This correlated with the drop in sex ratio to Nepal is one of the ten least urbanized, and the ten fastest urbanizing countries in the world.
As of [update] , an estimated Urbanization rate is high in the Terai, doon valleys of the inner Terai and valleys of the middle hills, but low in the high Himalayas.
Similarly, the rate is higher in central and eastern Nepal compared to further west. Congestion, pollution and drinking water shortage are some of the major problems facing the rapidly growing cities, most prominently the Kathmandu Valley.
Nepal's diverse linguistic heritage stems from three major language groups: Indo-Aryan , Tibeto-Burman , and various indigenous language isolates.
The major languages of Nepal percent spoken as native language according to the census are Nepali Nepal is home to at least four indigenous sign languages.
Descendent of Sanskrit , Nepali is written in Devanagari script. It is the official language and serves as lingua franca among Nepali of different ethnolinguistic groups.
Varieties of Tibetan are spoken in and north of the higher Himalaya where standard literary Tibetan is widely understood by those with religious education.
Local dialects in the Terai and hills are mostly unwritten with efforts underway to develop systems for writing many in Devanagari or the Roman alphabet.
Nepal also passed more stringent Anti conversion law on Nepal has the second-largest number of Hindus in the world after India. Free basic education is guaranteed in the constitution but the programme lacks funding for effective implementation.
Health care services in Nepal are provided by both the public and private sectors. Life expectancy at birth is estimated at 71 years as of , rd highest in the world,  up from 54 years in the s.
Nepal has made great progress in maternal and child health. Public health centres provide 72 essential medicines free of cost.
In addition, the public health insurance plan initiated in which covers health treatments of up to Rs 50, for five members of a family, for a premium of Rs per year, has seen limited success, and is expected to expand.
Nepal has a long tradition of accepting immigrants and refugees. Tibetan refugees began arriving in ,  and many more cross into Nepal every year. Most of them have been resettled in third countries.
The government lacks data on Indian immigrants as they do not require permits to live and work in Nepal;  Government of India puts the number of non-resident Indians in the country at , Traditional Nepali society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy.
The Nepali caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in South Asia. Nepal declared untouchability to be illegal in  and has since enacted other anti-discriminatory laws and social welfare initiatives.
At the workplace and educational institutions in urban Nepal, caste-related identification has pretty much lost its importance.
Family values are important in the Nepali tradition, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm in Nepal, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas.
An overwhelming majority of Nepalis, with or without their consent, have their marriages arranged by their parents or other family elders.
Marriage is thought to be for life, and the divorce rate is extremely low, with less than one in a thousand marriages ending in divorce.
Many Nepali festivals are religious in origin. The emblem of Nepal depicts the snowy Himalayas, the forested hills, and the fertile Terai, supported by a wreath of rhododendrons, with the national flag at the crest and in the foreground, a plain white map of Nepal below it, and a man's and woman's right hands joined to signify gender equality.
At the bottom is the national motto, a Sanskrit quote of patriotism attributed in Nepali folklore to Lord Rama, written in Devanagari script—" Mother and motherland are greater than heaven ".
Nepal's flag is the only national flag in the world that is not rectangular in shape. The flag's blue border signifies Nepali people's desire for peace.
The moon on the flag is a symbol of the peaceful and calm nature of Nepalis, while the sun represents the aggressiveness of Nepali warriors.
The president is the symbol of national unity. The martyrs are the symbols of patriotism. A special designation of "National hero" has been conferred to 16 people from Nepal's history for their exceptional contributions to the prestige of Nepal.
Prithvi Narayan Shah, the founder of modern Nepal, is held in high regard and considered "Father of the Nation" by many.
The oldest known examples of architecture in Nepal are stupas of early Buddhist constructions in and around Kapilvastu in south-western Nepal, and those constructed by Ashoka in the Kathmandu Valley c.
The characteristic architecture associated exclusively with Nepal was developed and refined by Newa artisans of the Kathmandu Valley starting no later than the Lichchhavi period.
A Tang dynasty Chinese travel book, probably based on records from c. It describes a magnificent seven-storied pagoda in the middle of a palace, with copper-tiled roofs, its balustrade, grills, columns and beams set about with fine and precious stones, and four golden sculptures of Makaras in the four corners of the base spouting water from their mouths like a fountain, supplied by copper pipes connected to the runnels at the top of the tower.
Later Chinese chronicles describe Nepal's king's palace as an immense structure with many roofs, suggesting that Chinese were not yet familiar with the pagoda architecture, which has now become one of the chief characteristic of Chinese architecture.
A typical pagoda temple is built with wood, every piece of it finely carved with geometrical patterns or images of gods, goddesses, mythical beings and beasts.
The roofs usually tiled with clay, and sometimes gold plated, diminish in proportion successively until the topmost roof is reached which is itself ensigned by a golden finial.
The base is usually composed of rectangular terraces of finely carved stone; the entrance is usually guarded by stone sculptures of conventional figures.
Bronze and copper craftsmanship observable in the sculpture of deities and beasts, decorations of doors and windows and the finials of buildings, as well as items of every day use is found to be of equal splendour.
The most well-developed of Nepali painting traditions is the thanka or paubha painting tradition of Tibetan Buddhism , practised in Nepal by the Buddhist monks and Newar artisans.
Changu Narayan Temple , built c. The "ankhijhyal" window , that allow a one-way view of the outside world, is an example of unique Nepali woodcraft, found in building structures, domestic and public alike, ancient and modern.
Many cultures paint the walls of their homes with regular patterns, figures of gods and beasts and religious symbols; others paint their walls plain, often with clay or chernozem contrasted with yellow soil or limestone.
The roofs of religious as well as domestic structures project considerably, presumably to provide protection from the sun and the rain.
The timber of domestic structures are finely carved as with their religious counterparts. Nepal's literature was closely intertwined with that of the rest of South Asia until its unification into a modern kingdom.
Literary works, which were written in Sanskrit by Brahmin priests educated and sometimes also based in Varanasi, included religious texts and other fantasies involving kings, gods and demons.
However, Newar literature dates back almost years. Influenced by western literary traditions, writers in this period started producing literary works addressing the contemporary social problems,  while many others continued to enrich Nepali poetic traditions with authentic Nepali poetry.
Newar literature also emerged as a premier literary tradition. Die Schneider treten mit ihren Blasinstrumenten und in bunten Kostümen nach den Vorbildern indischer Hochzeitsbands auf.
An bedeutenden religiösen Feiertagen wird der carya -Gruppengesang mit einem Ensemble aus Trommeln darunter der Doppelkonustrommel pashchima , Becken und fünf Paar Naturtrompeten paytah , von Sanskrit pancatala begleitet.
Ähnliche Ensembles begleiten rituelle Tanztheateraufführungen mit Maskentänzern wie Mahakali pyakhan , Navadurga pyakhan in Bhaktapur, Devi pyakhan und Kha pyakhan eine Version des Mahabharata.
Dapha stellt eine mit dem nordindischen marai kirtan verwandte emphatische Form der musikalischen Verehrung des Musikgottes Nasahdyah und anderer hinduistischer Götter dar.
Die von der höfischen Kultur der Malla-Könige überlieferte Tradition wird vor allem in Bhaktapur gepflegt.
Sie sind auch Schneider, aber besonders als Musiker gefragt, die bei religiösen Festen und privaten Familienfeiern wie Hochzeiten auftreten.
Weitere Blasinstrumente, darunter die Langtrompete karnal können das Ensemble verstärken. Dieser Ensembletyp, der auch in Indien in der zeremoniellen Musik vorkommt, war ursprünglich ein Militärorchester um das Kesseltrommelpaar naqqara und gelangte mit den islamischen Eroberungen im Mittelalter aus dem arabisch-persischen Raum nach Südasien.
In dieser Eigenschaft sind sie seit Ende des Jahrhunderts schriftlich belegt. Sie singen heroische Lieder karkha , preisen Könige und Götter und unterhalten mit Liedern über Alltagsbegebenheiten.
In Volksliedern lok git sorgt die zweifellige Zylindertrommel madal namensverwandt mit der maddale für den Rhythmus.
Die alte Gaine-Zupflaute arbajo ist nur noch selten zu hören. Die in den Bergen Zentralnepals lebenden Gurung unterscheiden bei ihrer traditionellen Musik die zahlreichere Gruppe der fröhlichen Lieder sabahim von den traurigen Liedern Musik für die Toten, bibhim.
Der Chorgesang von Männern und Jugendlichen wird von der Trommel madal begleitet. Für Hochzeit laden die Gurung ein panche baja -Ensemble der Damai ein.
Zu den älteren Genres der Gurung-Musik gehören die Tanzstile ghantu und sorathi , die einen schamanischen Kern haben.
Mädchen tanzen traditionell den Ritualtanz ghantu ghamtu bei einem religiösen Jahresfest zur Freude der Götter, wobei sie während des Tanzes von den angerufenen Geistwesen besessen werden und auch manche Zuschauer in einen Zustand der Trance geraten, weil sie die die Anwesenheit der Götter spüren.
Dazu singt — von madal begleitet — ein Männerchor, der die Szenen umfassende mythische Geschichte von König Parashuram und seiner Gemahlin Ambarawati vorträgt.
Touristisch abgewandelte Versionen des ghantu -Tanzes werden heute bei Kulturveranstaltungen aufgeführt. Er hat sich von einem ursprünglichen Ritual zu einem in ganz Nepal bekannten Volkstanz entwickelt.
Dazu werden Zylindertrommeln und das Beckenpaar jhyali geschlagen. Schamanen tragen einen heiligen Text vor, um die Geister von der Seele des Toten fernzuhalten.
Bei einem weiteren, tibetisch-buddhistischen Ritual, mit dem der Seele eine glückliche Rückkehr gesichert werden soll, setzt ein Lama tibetische Instrumente ein: das Paarbecken rol-mo , die Stielhandglocke drilbu , die Klappertrommel tindar damaru und die Knochentrompete kangling.
Die Rituale von nepalischen Heilern und Schamanen Nepali jhankri finden in mehreren Monaten an jeweils anderen Schreinen statt, die bevorzugt Mahadeva Beiname des Gottes Shiva gewidmet sind.
Sie werden meistens von einer Rahmentrommel begleitet. Wesentlich seltener ist eine kleinere einfellige Rahmentrommel regional nah, rnga, re oder ring , die etwa bei den Gurung von magischen Heilern pucu geschlagen wird.
In den er Jahren spielten beide als professionelle Musiker Jazz in Kathmandu, bevor Louis Banks nach Kalkutta zurückkehrte und dort eine eigene Band gründete.
Seit findet in Kathmandu jedes Jahr das Jazzfestival Jazzmandu statt, bei dem internationale Gruppen das in Nepal wenig bekannte Genre mit nepalischen Volksmusiktraditionen verbinden wollen.
Dies ist die gesichtete Version , die am November markiert wurde. Es gibt 1 ausstehende Änderung , die noch gesichtet werden muss. Dieser Artikel behandelt den Staat.
Siehe auch : Liste der Berge und Erhebungen in Nepal. Siehe auch : Liste der Städte in Nepal. Siehe auch : Liste der Könige von Nepal.
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